Formatting

List your partitions and note that each partition is listed as part of our sda disk device.

# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  52.5M  1 loop /run/miso/sfs/livefs
loop0    7:1    0 501.3M  1 loop /run/miso/sfs/rootfs
sda      8:0    0   128G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0   300M  0 part
├─sda2   8:2    0     2G  0 part
├─sda3   8:3    0    32G  0 part
└─sda4   8:4    0  93.7G  0 part
sr0     11:0    1 617.4M  0 rom  /run/miso/bootmnt

Filesystem

Before the partitions can be used the need a filesystem. Various filesystems exist each with pros and cons.

Filesystem for certain partitions is a requirement for that partition e.g. the EFI partition which must be the FAT filesystem.

EFI ($esp)

Format the EFI partition using FAT32

# mkfs.fat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Swap

The swap partition writes raw data so no formatting required

# mkswap /dev/sda2

Root

ext4 which is fourth generation of the most common filesystem used with the Linux kernel and it is the recommend filesystem when you are new to Linux

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

Home

Format the home partition with ext4 as well

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4